Central America

·        Center for Ethnic and Migration Studies The Centro de Estudios Etnicos y Migratorios-Universidad Santa María la Antigua (CEEM-USMA) is an education and research group in the fields of ethnic and migration studies, which we believe responds to a profound need experienced by Panamanian society. The Center has been developed over the past two years through the collaboration of academics from various social disciplines, such as history, anthropology, sociology and psychology, including both intellectuals from USMA as well as from other institutions and universities.


·        Dirección General de Migración y Extranjería de Nicaragua The Nicaraguan General Bureau of Migration provides legislation, statistics, services, links, events, and news on Nicaraguan migration.  This service is provided by the Nicaraguan General Assembly.


·        Norwegian Refugee Council The Norwegian Refugee Council is a voluntary organization involved in refugee questions and international refugee work.  In its Annual Report 1998, it devotes a section to Guatemala.  It argues that the situation in Guatemala was further stabilized in 1998, and the majority of the refugees have returned. UNHCR assumed that the refugees who had not returned from Mexico by the close of 1998, would stay on and accept the offer of permanent residency in that country. Even though the internally displaced population received minimal assistance in starting a new life in peace, the need for further support in Guatemala took on a developmental character rather than need of protection. Thus the Refugee Council completed its objective of phasing out its programs at the end of the year.


·         United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Documents.


o       Central America and Mexico Following a 1987 political peace agreement between Central American states (Esquipulas II), the governments of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua adopted a five-year 1989-1994 project called by its Spanish acronym CIREFCA, the International Conference on Central American Refugees.  UNHCR and the U.N. Development Program were the main United Nations agencies in the plan to help a total of 1.9 million people – 146,400 refugees, 61,500 returnees, 872,000 persons internally displaced in their own countries and 893,000 Central Americans who did not have proper documentation. Donors provided $420 million for a variety of programs, including $80 million channeled through UNHCR.



·        Center for International and European Law on Immigration and Asylum In consideration of a permanently growing world population, the emergence of a gap of prosperity and a constant danger of military conflicts the international law has a decisive function of pacification. The migration policies of different states or federations of states can achieve an equitable balance between all involved only if holding on to recognized minimum standards. For these reasons it seems to be necessary to present ideas and expert opinions to all decision-makers and interested people concerned with migration law and policy. The employees of the Center feel obliged to this task. Using the World Wide Web the employees of the Center hope to get in touch with other research facilities and people involved. The exchange of information and the electronic communication could be a suitable basis for an international discussion on migration policy.


·        European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations –ERCOMER- ERCOMER exists to promote the scientific study of migration (including asylum seekers), racism and ethnicity, to support relevant research training, to disseminate information and promote communication between researchers.


·        Immigrant and Refugee Rights This gopher includes information about the rights of immigrants and refugees in the United States, including government initiatives, activist activities and progressive analysis.  This gopher represents only a portion of the information on PeaceNet about this topic.


·        Immigration History Research Center Founded in 1965, the Immigration History Research Center (IHRC) in the College of Liberal Arts, University of Minnesota is an international resource on American immigration and ethnic history. It maintains archival and library collections, sponsors academic and public programs, and publishes bibliographic and scholarly works.


·        International Migration International Migration is a refereed quarterly review on migration issues as analysed by demographers, economists, sociologists, political scientists and other social scientists from all parts of the world. Initiated by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), International Migration covers theoretical and applied aspects of international migration and includes reports on recent conferences and workshops, as well as sections on book reviews and recent publications. Abstracts of articles are translated into French and Spanish. International Migration is published four times a year in March, June, September and December by Blackwell Publishers Limited.


·        International Organization for Migration –IOM- The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is committed to the principle that humane and orderly migration benefits migrants and society. As an intergovernmental body, IOM acts with its partners in the international community to: Assist in meeting the operational challenges of migration; Advance understanding of migration issues; Encourage social and economic development through migration; Uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants.


o       IOM Latin American Migration Journal IOM Latin American Journal is IOM’s center specialized in migration and information services about international migration and related topics.  It collects information and documentation published around the world on migration.


o       Migration and Health Published by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Migration and Health informs about current mobile populations and health issues around the world. In addition to an in-depth editorial, Migration and Health includes book reviews, notes on meetings, and summaries of recently published research. Migration and Health is available in English.


o       Trafficking in Migrants Compiling and analyzing information from the media, governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, Trafficking in Migrants aims at improving the exchange of information on migrant trafficking. Published quarterly by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Trafficking in Migrants includes sections on trends, policies, meetings, publications, and networking activities.


·        U.S. State Department, Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration The Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM) has primary responsibility for formulating policies on population, refugees, and migration, and for administering U.S. refugee assistance and admissions programs.


·        War, Peace and Security Guide, Canadian Forces College Information Centre This institution provides links to institutions doing research in the field of migration.